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配电柜中速度控制原理电路应用

文(wen)章出处:人气:32发表(biao)时(shi)间(jian):2021-10-13 09:44:57

配电(dian)(dian)(dian)柜(ju)中(zhong)常(chang)(chang)用的(de)(de)速度控(kong)制(zhi)目前以(yi)变频(pin)器应用较为(wei)广泛,在变频(pin)器未大规模应用前,以(yi)速度控(kong)制(zhi)为(wei)原则的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)路中(zhong)的(de)(de)用电(dian)(dian)(dian)器动(dong)作状态由用电(dian)(dian)(dian)器的(de)(de)速度来控(kong)制(zhi),例(li)如三相电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)在由正常(chang)(chang)运(yun)行转(zhuan)(zhuan)为(wei)断电(dian)(dian)(dian)能(neng)(neng)耗(hao)制(zhi)动(dong)到(dao)停(ting)转(zhuan)(zhuan)的(de)(de)过(guo)程中(zhong),电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)能(neng)(neng)耗(hao)制(zhi)动(dong)的(de)(de)时间由电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)转(zhuan)(zhuan)速来确定。下图是电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)正常(chang)(chang)启动(dong)与能(neng)(neng)耗(hao)制(zhi)动(dong)到(dao)停(ting)止过(guo)程的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)路。

电动机速度控制电路.jpg

由图中控制电路可见,主电路电源为380V三相交流电源;主电路用电器是三相异步电动机主电路中有短路保护环节(熔断器1FU)和过载保护环节(热继电器FR),电动机启动过程与前面图中所示电路电动机启动过程相同。图中电动机停止过程与所示电路电动机停止过程不同。图中所示电路中的电动机从运行转换为停止状态时,电动机有能耗制动过程。

在图中所示电路的轴助电路中有停止按钮开关1SB(1SB的常开触点和常闭触点都用),有启动按钮开关2SB(只用常开触点),有交流接触器KM(主触点串于电动机定子绕组电路中),有继电器KA和速度继电器KS的常开触点,有整流变压器TR,桥式整流电路,整流后的直流电压可以加到电动机定子绕组上(当电动机处于能耗状态时)。辅助电路电源电压为交流220V。

电动机速度控制.jpg

有关电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)M的(de)启(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)过程(cheng)(cheng)J9九游会AG 不再重述(shu),现(xian)只(zhi)说(shuo)明(ming)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)能耗制动(dong)(dong)(dong)过程(cheng)(cheng),当(dang)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)以正常(chang)转(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su)运行时(shi),速(su)度继电(dian)(dian)器的(de)常(chang)开触点(dian)(dian)(dian)闭合(he)(速(su)度继电(dian)(dian)器KS旋转(zhuan)(zhuan)部件与电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)M同(tong)轴连接,当(dang)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)转(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su)超(chao)过100转(zhuan)(zhuan)/分时(shi),其常(chang)开触点(dian)(dian)(dian)就闭合(he))若使电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)由运行状(zhuang)态(tai)转(zhuan)(zhuan)为停止状(zhuang)态(tai),只(zhi)要(yao)接动(dong)(dong)(dong)停止按(an)细(xi)1SB,则其常(chang)闭触点(dian)(dian)(dian)先断开,使交流接(jie)触(chu)器失电(dian)(dian)(dian),电(dian)(dian)(dian)动机定子绕组串联(lian)的KM常开(kai)触(chu)点断(duan)(duan)开(kai),电(dian)(dian)(dian)动机断(duan)(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)。在1SB常闭触(chu)点断(duan)(duan)开(kai)后,紧接(jie)着1SB常开(kai)触(chu)点闭合(he);因1SB常开(kai)触(chu)点和(he)速度维电(dian)(dian)(dian)器常开(kai)触(chu)点都处于闭合(he)状(zhuang)态。

所以继电(dian)器KA得(de)电(dian)动(dong)作,KA常(chang)开触点(dian)闭(bi)合,电(dian)动(dong)机定子绕组通以直流(liu)电(dian)流(liu),产生恒定磁场,电(dian)动(dong)机转子绕组中(zhong)产生感应电(dian)势和电(dian)流(liu),产生制动(dong)电(dian)磁力矩,使电(dian)动(dong)机转速(su)迅速(su)降低,当(dang)电(dian)动(dong)机转速(su)低于100转/分时,速(su)度继电(dian)器KS常(chang)开触点(dian)断开,继电(dian)器KA失电(dian),则电(dian)动(dong)机能耗材动(dong)过程结東,电(dian)动(dong)机从(cong)低速(su)缓慢转动(dong)直到最后停止转动(dong)。

通过对电动机能耗制动过程的分析,可见电动机能耗制动过程时间长短取决于速度继电器KS工作状态。J9九游会AG 称控制电动机能耗制动过程的电路为以速度控制为原则的速度控制单元电路


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