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配电柜中时序控制电路应用

文(wen)章出处(chu):人气:32发表时间:2021-10-23 10:31:58

配电(dian)(dian)(dian)柜中时(shi)序电(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)是较为(wei)常用的(de)一种(zhong)降(jiang)(jiang)压(ya)启(qi)动(dong)(dong)方法,时(shi)序控制是指能实现电(dian)(dian)(dian)气(qi)设备或装置(zhi)在(zai)运(yun)行的(de)过(guo)程(cheng)中,其动(dong)(dong)作状态按(an)照时(shi)间先后有顺序地发生变化的(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)。例如(ru)一台三(san)相(xiang)异步电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)采(cai)用“星一角”启(qi)动(dong)(dong)方法时(shi),电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)刚(gang)开始启(qi)动(dong)(dong)时(shi)定子绕组采(cai)用星形(xing)接(jie)法,电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)处(chu)于降(jiang)(jiang)压(ya)启(qi)动(dong)(dong)过(guo)程(cheng),随着(zhe)电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)启(qi)动(dong)(dong)时(shi)间延长,电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)转(zhuan)速升(sheng)高,在(zai)电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)星接(jie)启(qi)动(dong)(dong)一段时(shi)间后,电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)定子绕组由星形(xing)接(jie)法改(gai)变为(wei)三(san)角形(xing)接(jie)法,电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)由降(jiang)(jiang)压(ya)启(qi)动(dong)(dong)转(zhuan)换(huan)为(wei)全压(ya)启(qi)动(dong)(dong),接(jie)着(zhe)进入正常运(yun)行状态。

时序控制电路原理图.jpg

电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)启(qi)动(dong)(dong)过程(cheng)中定(ding)子绕组接(jie)法的改变可用时序电(dian)(dian)路(lu)来实现,也就是电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)通过辅助电(dian)(dian)路(lu)的控制,使电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)开始启(qi)动(dong)(dong)时定(ding)子绕组为星形(xing)接(jie)法,过一段时间后(例如40秒钟)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)定(ding)子绕组自(zi)动(dong)(dong)从(cong)星形(xing)接(jie)法转换为三(san)角(jiao)形(xing)接(jie)法继(ji)续(xu)启(qi)动(dong)(dong),并转为正常运行三(san)相(xiang)异(yi)步(bu)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)“星一角(jiao)”启(qi)动(dong)(dong)电(dian)(dian)路(lu)见下图,图中主(zhu)电(dian)(dian)路(lu)的三(san)相(xiang)异(yi)步(bu)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)M由两个交流(liu)接(jie)触器1KM和(he)2KM控制,电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)M有过载(zai)保护(hu)(hu)(热继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器FR起过保护(hu)(hu)作用)和(he)短(duan)路(lu)保护(hu)(hu)环(huan)节(熔断(duan)器起短(duan)路(lu)保护(hu)(hu)作用),主(zhu)电(dian)(dian)路(lu)电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)为380V三(san)相(xiang)流(liu)电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)。

图中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)轴助(zhu)电(dian)路(lu)(lu)控制元件有(you)起短路(lu)(lu)保(bao)护(hu)作用(yong)的熔断(duan)器(qi)2FU,有(you)启(qi)动(dong)按(an)钮开关2SB和(he)(he)停(ting)止按(an)钮开关1SB,有(you)时(shi)间维电(dian)器(qi)KT、交流(liu)接触器(qi)1KM和(he)(he)2KM辅(fu)助(zhu)电(dian)路(lu)(lu)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的时(shi)间继电(dian)器(qi)KT和(he)(he)交流(liu)接触器(qi)1KM和(he)(he)2KM组成(cheng)时(shi)序(xu)单元电(dian)路(lu)(lu),也就(jiu)是说交流(liu)接触器(qi)1KM和(he)(he)2KM的动(dong)作受(shou)时(shi)间继电(dian)器(qi)KT的控制,并(bing)控制主电(dian)路(lu)(lu)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的电(dian)动(dong)机M定子绕组的“星”接启(qi)动(dong)与“角”接启(qi)动(dong)之间的转(zhuan)换辅(fu)助(zhu)电(dian)路(lu)(lu)有(you)自锁环节和(he)(he)电(dian)气联锁环节。

电动机降压启动.jpg

自锁环(huan)节是(shi)并联于启动(dong)按(an)钮开(kai)(kai)关2SB旁边的(de)时(shi)间继电(dian)器(qi)(qi)KT的(de)快跳常开(kai)(kai)触(chu)(chu)点,辅助(zhu)电(dian)路中电(dian)气联锁环(huan)节由(you)串接(jie)(jie)(jie)于交(jiao)流接(jie)(jie)(jie)触(chu)(chu)器(qi)(qi)1KM线(xian)图下边的(de)2KM常闭触(chu)(chu)点和串接(jie)(jie)(jie)于交(jiao)流接(jie)(jie)(jie)触(chu)(chu)器(qi)(qi)2KM线(xian)圈下边的(de)1KM常闭触(chu)(chu)点组(zu)成。也(ye)就(jiu)是(shi)说交(jiao)流接(jie)(jie)(jie)触(chu)(chu)器(qi)(qi)1KM得电(dian)动(dong)作(zuo)迫使交(jiao)流接(jie)(jie)(jie)触(chu)(chu)器(qi)(qi)2KM不能得电(dian)动(dong)作(zuo);画反(fan)过来也(ye)是(shi)如此,以确保电(dian)动(dong)机M定子(zi)(zi)绕组(zu)星形接(jie)(jie)(jie)法(fa)启动(dong)时(shi),不会发生定子(zi)(zi)绕组(zu)三角形接(jie)(jie)(jie)法(fa)。

只有电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)星(xing)(xing)形(xing)接(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)法(fa)(fa)起动(dong)(dong)段时(shi)间(jian)(jian)后(定时(shi)时(shi)间(jian)(jian))才(cai)能使电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)先断开星(xing)(xing)形(xing)联(lian)接(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)形(xing)式,紧接(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)着立(li)即转为三(san)角(jiao)(jiao)形(xing)联(lian)接(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)。实(shi)(shi)际(ji)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)在定子绕组从(cong)“星(xing)(xing)”接(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)转换为“角(jiao)(jiao)”接(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)过程中,有极短瞬间(jian)(jian)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)是处于断电(dian)(dian)状态的(de)(既不是“星(xing)(xing)”接(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie),也非“角(jiao)(jiao)”接(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)状态)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)M从(cong)星(xing)(xing)形(xing)接(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)法(fa)(fa)启动(dong)(dong)开始到其定子绕组转换到三(san)角(jiao)(jiao)形(xing)接(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)法(fa)(fa)继续启动(dong)(dong)这(zhei)段时(shi)间(jian)(jian)的(de)控制(zhi)是由时(shi)间(jian)(jian)继电(dian)(dian)器KT来实(shi)(shi)现。

星三角启动电路.jpg

下面J9九游会AG 来说明电动机启动过程,首先闭合刀开关QK,接着按动启动按2SB。2SB→1KM得电(同时KT得电并开始计时)一主电路中1KM主触点闭合一→电动机开始星形启动。当时间继电器定时时间到,KT的延时动作的常闭触点先断开,使1KM先断电,其主电路中的1KM三对常开触点断开(电动机瞬间断电)。当KT的延时断开常闭触点先断开后,紧接着KT延时闭合的常开触点闭合,当KT延时闭合的常开触点闭合后,若1KM接触器失电使其常开触点已经断开,常闭触点(联锁环节中1KM常闭触点)已经闭合,交流接触器2KM会得电动作,使其联锁环节中2KM常闭触点断开(使1KM不能得电),紧接着2KM的主触点(三对主触点)闭合,电动机由“星”接启动转换为“角”接继续启动,并转为运行状态。

通过(guo)以上(shang)星三角启(qi)动(dong)控(kong)制电路(lu)可(ke)以看出(chu),三个(ge)接触器的启(qi)停是(shi)有先后顺序和时间要求的。这样通过(guo)分别启(qi)动(dong)接触器来达到实(shi)现电动(dong)机的启(qi)动(dong),减少了(le)直接启(qi)动(dong)电动(dong)机对电网大(da)电流的冲(chong)击。保证供电电压的稳定性。


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