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低压配电柜防雷击减少财产损失有妙招

文章出处:人气:36发表时间:2022-02-09 22:14:29

低(di)(di)压(ya)配(pei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)柜的使用场合分(fen)室(shi)(shi)内(nei)和室(shi)(shi)外(wai)(wai)两种(zhong),室(shi)(shi)外(wai)(wai)配(pei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)柜除了要防水耐腐蚀(shi)还要考(kao)虑受(shou)到(dao)雷(lei)击(ji)(ji)影响(xiang)的财产和人畜伤亡(wang)事故.室(shi)(shi)内(nei)配(pei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)柜受(shou)雷(lei)击(ji)(ji)影响(xiang)主(zhu)要来自于户外(wai)(wai)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)线的雷(lei)击(ji)(ji)大电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流输入.而在日生(sheng)活中为(wei)了降(jiang)低(di)(di)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)线架设成本,配(pei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)部门都采用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)感架空线的方法进(jin)行(xing)敷设,这种(zhong)架线方式在农村较为(wei)普遍,但(dan)这种(zhong)架空配(pei)线方法在夏季(ji)雨(yu)季(ji)到(dao)来时很(hen)容易(yi)受(shou)到(dao)雷(lei)击(ji)(ji)。下面就低(di)(di)压(ya)配(pei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)柜受(shou)雷(lei)击(ji)(ji)出现爆炸(zha)的情况(kuang)进(jin)行(xing)剖析,便于J9九游会AG 进(jin)行(xing)预防和检修。

避雷器.jpg

一、雷击事故(gu)原因(yin)剖析(xi)

低压(ya)配电(dian)(dian)(dian)设(she)(she)备受雷(lei)(lei)击(ji)的(de)(de)(de)情(qing)况(kuang),主要(yao)是由直击(ji)雷(lei)(lei)、感应(ying)雷(lei)(lei)、雷(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)波清儒(ru)、雷(lei)(lei)球造(zao)成(cheng)(cheng)。巨大的(de)(de)(de)高压(ya)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流使电(dian)(dian)(dian)气设(she)(she)备的(de)(de)(de)绝缘(yuan)层遭受破坏。雷(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)发(fa)生(sheng)时(shi)高电(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)流入供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)系统中(zhong)所(suo)形成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)的(de)(de)(de)雷(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)冲(chong)击(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流强度之在,其高压(ya)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流可(ke)达(da)几十万安(an),雷(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)产生(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)击(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)幅值(zhi)通(tong)常可(ke)达(da)几十万伏,甚至最(zui)高时(shi)可(ke)达(da)百万伏,所(suo)以破坏性(xing)非常大。发(fa)生(sheng)雷(lei)(lei)击(ji)时(shi)会造(zao)成(cheng)(cheng)配电(dian)(dian)(dian)房总开关(guan)(guan)跳闸或低压(ya)开关(guan)(guan)损毁.为什么会造(zao)雷(lei)(lei)击(ji)情(qing)况(kuang)发(fa)生(sheng)呢,通(tong)过常见事故一般原因有(you)以下几种。

1、低压配(pei)电柜安装位置选(xuan)择(ze)不(bu)当(dang)

室外配(pei)(pei)(pei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)柜一(yi)般配(pei)(pei)(pei)有避(bi)(bi)雷(lei)(lei)器(qi).如果避(bi)(bi)雷(lei)(lei)器(qi)引下(xia)(xia)线和(he)(he)接地装(zhuang)置过于接近。当配(pei)(pei)(pei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)柜受到(dao)直击雷(lei)(lei)时(shi)(shi),巨大(da)的(de)雷(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流经(jing)过防雷(lei)(lei)装(zhuang)置时(shi)(shi)会造成(cheng)防雷(lei)(lei)装(zhuang)置的(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)位(wei)(wei)瞬时(shi)(shi)升高(gao),这样的(de)高(gao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)位(wei)(wei)也可以(yi)牵连其它电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)气线路、电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)气设(she)备(bei)或其他(ta)金属(shu)管(guan)道上,这些设(she)备(bei)之间(jian)产(chan)生(sheng)高(gao)压(ya)放电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。此时(shi)(shi)出现的(de)高(gao)反(fan)击电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)使配(pei)(pei)(pei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)设(she)备(bei)的(de)绝(jue)缘(yuan)层(ceng)损坏而产(chan)生(sheng)短路。当受到(dao)感应(ying)雷(lei)(lei)时(shi)(shi),由于雷(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流的(de)强大(da)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)场和(he)(he)磁场发(fa)生(sheng)变(bian)化(hua)产(chan)生(sheng)静电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)感应(ying)和(he)(he)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁感应(ying)高(gao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动势,能(neng)在(zai)配(pei)(pei)(pei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)柜与引下(xia)(xia)线的(de)金属(shu)部件之间(jian)产(chan)生(sheng)很(hen)高(gao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)位(wei)(wei)差造成(cheng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)火(huo)花放电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)进而把金属(shu)烧熔和(he)(he)烧穿。

避雷器在配电设备中应用.jpg

2、配电柜(ju)接地电阻未达到(dao)要求

低压配电柜在安装(zhuang)(zhuang)过程中,整个接(jie)地(di)网电阻(zu)不应超过30欧(ou)。应重(zhong)点检查各(ge)种(zhong)雷电保护装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)的接(jie)地(di)是否良好,接(jie)地(di)电阻(zu)过大失去避雷保护能力。从安全角度(du)来(lai)说,配电设(she)备理(li)想(xiang)的接(jie)地(di)电阻(zu)应为5~30Ω。如果(guo)接(jie)地(di)电阻(zu)太高,不能迅速泄放过大雷电流,使防雷装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)对地(di)产生高电压而(er)损坏。

3、室外架空进户线没有装设避雷器

我国南(nan)方(fang)是(shi)多(duo)雷(lei)(lei)区尤其在春夏(xia)两季(ji)时雷(lei)(lei)击较多(duo),用电(dian)单(dan)位为(wei)了降低架(jia)(jia)线(xian)成本(ben)在空(kong)(kong)旷地方(fang)的架(jia)(jia)空(kong)(kong)线(xian)路(lu)(lu)没有(you)安装(zhuang)避(bi)雷(lei)(lei)装(zhuang)置,使输(shu)电(dian)线(xian)路(lu)(lu)很容易受(shou)到(dao)(dao)雷(lei)(lei)击。当室外架(jia)(jia)空(kong)(kong)线(xian)受(shou)到(dao)(dao)雷(lei)(lei)击后,高达上(shang)万伏的雷(lei)(lei)电(dian)压(ya)和雷(lei)(lei)电(dian)流就会(hui)叠加(jia)到(dao)(dao)配(pei)电(dian)装(zhuang)置上(shang),使用电(dian)设备(bei)的绝缘层破损,造成短路(lu)(lu)和烧毁起火事故。

二、低(di)压配电柜(ju)防雷改进方(fang)法

通过以上故障情况分析可知(zhi),配电(dian)(dian)(dian)设(she)备(bei)雷击时产(chan)(chan)生(sheng)高电(dian)(dian)(dian)压和大电(dian)(dian)(dian)流是造成设(she)备(bei)损坏的主要(yao)原(yuan)因(yin)。为(wei)了限(xian)制接地电(dian)(dian)(dian)位升高,避免配电(dian)(dian)(dian)柜受到雷击时产(chan)(chan)生(sheng)过电(dian)(dian)(dian)压,必须对(dui)低压配电(dian)(dian)(dian)柜采取一些预防(fang)和防(fang)范措施。具体方法(fa)如下:

1、增加低压配(pei)电柜与(yu)避(bi)雷针引(yin)下接(jie)地线(xian)的距(ju)离(li),使(shi)配(pei)电柜与(yu)地线(xian)之(zhi)间的空(kong)气安全距(ju)离(li)符合要求。

防雷设备.jpg

2、减少(shao)避雷线接地电阻

1)可以(yi)通过增加接地(di)(di)网(wang)的面积来降低电(dian)阻,或者用深度接地(di)(di)体(ti),还可以(yi)利用化学降阻剂人工(gong)改(gai)善地(di)(di)电(dian)阻率。使配电(dian)设备接地(di)(di)电(dian)阻在4Ω以(yi)下。

2)避(bi)雷引下线尽量布(bu)两(liang)根以上(shang),并沿建筑(zhu)四周均匀和对(dui)称布(bu)置(zhi),其间距不(bu)得大于18m。防雷接(jie)(jie)(jie)地、电气设备(bei)接(jie)(jie)(jie)地应(ying)(ying)共用(yong)一个接(jie)(jie)(jie)地装置(zhi)。当不(bu)共用(yong)时,两(liang)者间在(zai)地中的距离应(ying)(ying)符合下列表达的要求。但不(bu)应(ying)(ying)小于2m。在(zai)共用(yong)接(jie)(jie)(jie)地装置(zhi)与埋地金属(shu)管道相连的情况下,接(jie)(jie)(jie)地装置(zhi)应(ying)(ying)围(wei)绕(rao)建筑(zhu)物敷设成环形接(jie)(jie)(jie)地体。

3、改变电源进(jin)线铺(pu)设方(fang)法以(yi)防雷电进(jin)入

由于(yu)(yu)户外(wai)(wai)架空线易遭受雷(lei)(lei)(lei)击,因此可以将用电线路(lu)铺设在(zai)(zai)地(di)(di)(di)(di),或者(zhe)在(zai)(zai)进户前改换一段埋地(di)(di)(di)(di)金(jin)(jin)(jin)属铠装电缆(lan)(lan)(lan)或护套电缆(lan)(lan)(lan)穿管(guan)埋地(di)(di)(di)(di)引入,其埋地(di)(di)(di)(di)长(zhang)度应(ying)(ying)(ying)符合(he)安(an)全要求,电缆(lan)(lan)(lan)埋地(di)(di)(di)(di)长(zhang)度不应(ying)(ying)(ying)小(xiao)于(yu)(yu)15m。进户端电缆(lan)(lan)(lan)的(de)金(jin)(jin)(jin)属外(wai)(wai)皮(pi)、钢管(guan)应(ying)(ying)(ying)与(yu)防雷(lei)(lei)(lei)的(de)接地(di)(di)(di)(di)装置相连(lian)接。在(zai)(zai)电缆(lan)(lan)(lan)与(yu)架空线连(lian)接处(chu)应(ying)(ying)(ying)安(an)装避(bi)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)器(qi)。其避(bi)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)器(qi)、电缆(lan)(lan)(lan)金(jin)(jin)(jin)属外(wai)(wai)皮(pi)、钢管(guan)和(he)绝缘子铁(tie)脚、金(jin)(jin)(jin)具等(deng)全部连(lian)在(zai)(zai)一起接地(di)(di)(di)(di)、冲击接地(di)(di)(di)(di)电阻应(ying)(ying)(ying)小(xiao)于(yu)(yu)10Ω。

雷(lei)击(ji)对人民的(de)(de)生产和生活有很大影响.防(fang)范不到位会(hui)造成重大财产损失和人畜触(chu)电(dian)事(shi)故.随着(zhe)防(fang)雷(lei)技术的(de)(de)进(jin)步,市场上也出现(xian)了很多防(fang)雷(lei)设(she)备。比如配电(dian)柜中安装的(de)(de)避(bi)雷(lei)器和浪涌保(bao)(bao)护器都能对雷(lei)电(dian)起到保(bao)(bao)护作(zuo)用.应采取必要(yao)的(de)(de)经济(ji)合理的(de)(de)防(fang)雷(lei)保(bao)(bao)护措(cuo)施。此(ci)外还(hai)(hai)应注意(yi)在选购防(fang)雷(lei)装置时还(hai)(hai)应注意(yi)质量,只(zhi)有合格(ge)的(de)(de)防(fang)雷(lei)产品这样才能尽可能的(de)(de)避(bi)免雷(lei)击(ji)事(shi)故的(de)(de)发(fa)生。


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