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配电柜电路中的短路保护、过流保护和欠压保护接线

文章出处:人气:61发表(biao)时间:2021-09-26 10:11:36

配电(dian)柜在设计时考(kao)虑到许多外部因素(su)影(ying)响(xiang),为了确(que)保(bao)(bao)配电(dian)柜能正常运行(xing)和(he)免受损失,实际电(dian)路(lu)中(zhong)(zhong)保(bao)(bao)护环(huan)(huan)(huan)节(jie)(jie)是必不可(ke)少(shao)的,掌(zhang)握这些保(bao)(bao)护电(dian)路(lu)原理,对(dui)J9九游会AG 识图是很(hen)有(you)利的。电(dian)路(lu)中(zhong)(zhong)的保(bao)(bao)护环(huan)(huan)(huan)节(jie)(jie)在一(yi)个电(dian)路(lu)中(zhong)(zhong)最常用(yong)的保(bao)(bao)护环(huan)(huan)(huan)节(jie)(jie)有(you)短路(lu)保(bao)(bao)护和(he)过(guo)载保(bao)(bao)护环(huan)(huan)(huan)节(jie)(jie)两种。有(you)的电(dian)路(lu)除具(ju)有(you)以上两种保(bao)(bao)护环(huan)(huan)(huan)节(jie)(jie)外,还有(you)缺相保(bao)(bao)护(即三相电(dian)缺相时,使电(dian)路(lu)断电(dian))、欠压保(bao)(bao)护、过(guo)流保(bao)(bao)护等环(huan)(huan)(huan)节(jie)(jie)。

熔断器短路保护.jpg

1.电(dian)气线路(lu)短路(lu)保护电(dian)路(lu)

短(duan)路(lu)(lu)保护(hu)是指电路(lu)(lu)发生短(duan)路(lu)(lu)故障(zhang)时(shi),能使(shi)故障(zhang)电路(lu)(lu)与(yu)(yu)其电断开的保护(hu)环节(jie)。短(duan)路(lu)(lu)保护(hu)常用熔(rong)(rong)(rong)断器(qi)实现,在图中(zhong)保险(xian)盒1FU和2FU熔(rong)(rong)(rong)断器(qi)都是短(duan)路(lu)(lu)保护(hu)环节(jie)。在实际电路(lu)(lu)中(zhong)有(you)的熔(rong)(rong)(rong)断器(qi)与(yu)(yu)刀开关合为一体,在画电路(lu)(lu)图时(shi)将(jiang)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)断器(qi)画在刀开关上,短(duan)路(lu)(lu)保护(hu)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)断器(qi)都设(she)置在近电部位,也就(jiu)是被保护(hu)电路(lu)(lu)的电源(yuan)引入位置。

2.电气控制过载保护环(huan)节

过(guo)载保(bao)护(hu)环节是电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力拖动电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)(lu)中(zhong)(zhong)重要的(de)保(bao)护(hu)环节。过(guo)载保(bao)护(hu)是指对(dui)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动机过(guo)载时,能使电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动机自动断(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)保(bao)护(hu),过(guo)载保(bao)护(hu)常(chang)用热(re)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)实现。下(xia)图(tu)中(zhong)(zhong)画出了(le)具有短路(lu)(lu)(lu)和过(guo)保(bao)护(hu)的(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动机点动电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)(lu)原(yuan)理图(tu)可见(jian),图(tu)中(zhong)(zhong)所(suo)示电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)(lu)只比原(yuan)图(tu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)(lu)多(duo)了(le)一个(ge)热(re)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)FR。热(re)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)的(de)发热(re)元(yuan)件于三相异步电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动机定子绕(rao)组电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)(lu)中(zhong)(zhong),而热(re)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)的(de)常(chang)闭触点串接(jie)(jie)于控制回路(lu)(lu)(lu)的(de)交流接(jie)(jie)触器(qi)KM线圈下(xia)端。

当闭(bi)合(he)(he)刀开关(guan)(guan)QK后,按(an)下按(an)钮开关(guan)(guan)SB,则(ze)交流(liu)核触(chu)(chu)器(qi)(qi)KM线(xian)(xian)得电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)作(zuo),KM主触(chu)(chu)点(dian)闭(bi)合(he)(he),电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机M启动(dong)(dong)运行(xing)。若电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机运行(xing)过(guo)(guo)程中过(guo)(guo)载,则(ze)电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机定(ding)子绕组电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)过(guo)(guo)大,通过(guo)(guo)热(re)继电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)的(de)热(re)元件电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)过(guo)(guo)大,会(hui)使(shi)热(re)维电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)动(dong)(dong)作(zuo),则(ze)热(re)维电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)的(de)常闭(bi)触(chu)(chu)点(dian)断开,从(cong)而使(shi)辅助电(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)中交流(liu)接(jie)触(chu)(chu)器(qi)(qi)KM线(xian)(xian)圈(quan)断电(dian)(dian)(dian),KM的(de)主触(chu)(chu)点(dian)断开,使(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机断电(dian)(dian)(dian),从(cong)而保护(hu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机。

短路保护和过载保护电路.jpg

3.电路的过流保护和(he)欠压保护环节

电(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)过(guo)流保护用电(dian)(dian)(dian)流继电(dian)(dian)(dian)器,电(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)欠压(ya)保护用电(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)继电(dian)(dian)(dian)器。这两种继电(dian)(dian)(dian)器动作(zuo)(zuo)特殊,可以实现对电(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)的(de)过(guo)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流和欠电(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)保护作(zuo)(zuo)用。电(dian)(dian)(dian)流继电(dian)(dian)(dian)器线圈通(tong)过(guo)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流等于或超(chao)过(guo)整定(ding)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流时(shi),它才(cai)(cai)能动作(zuo)(zuo),其(qi)线圈通(tong)过(guo)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流小(xiao)于整定(ding)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流,它不动作(zuo)(zuo)电(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)继电(dian)(dian)(dian)器只有其(qi)线圈所(suo)加(jia)电(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)为整定(ding)值时(shi),它才(cai)(cai)能动作(zuo)(zuo)。

一且(qie)线(xian)圈电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)值低于整定电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)值一定量(liang)值后,则电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器会立即返回原始状态(使(shi)常(chang)开触点(dian)断(duan)开、常(chang)闭触点(dian)闭合)用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器和电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器作为电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路过(guo)流(liu)和欠压(ya)(ya)保(bao)护电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路如下图(tu)所示,图(tu)中(zhong)所示电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路与前面电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路图(tu)相(xiang)比较多(duo)了两个(ge)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器1KV和2KV,多(duo)了三个(ge)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器1KA、2KA、3KA:以上五继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器都在主电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路中(zhong)。

图(tu)(tu)中所示电(dian)路比原来(lai)图(tu)(tu)中所示电(dian)路还多了停止按(an)钮(niu)开(kai)(kai)关1SB,面且在2SB按(an)钮(niu)开(kai)(kai)关处并联了交流接触(chu)器KM的(de)(de)(de)轴助触(chu)点(常(chang)开(kai)(kai)FR触(chu)点)。下(xia)面J9九游会AG 分析(xi)1KV、2KV、1KA、2KA、3KA五个继(ji)(ji)电(dian)器的(de)(de)(de)作用。电(dian)压(ya)继(ji)(ji)电(dian)器1KV和(he)2K接于主电(dian)路的(de)(de)(de)三根(gen)相线(xian)上(shang);当刀开(kai)(kai)关QK闭合时,两个电(dian)压(ya)继(ji)(ji)电(dian)器所承受的(de)(de)(de)是线(xian)电(dian)压(ya),若电(dian)源电(dian)压(ya)正常(chang),则1KV和(he)2KV都(dou)会动作,使其常(chang)开(kai)(kai)触(chu)点(辅助电(dian)路中的(de)(de)(de)1KV和(he)2KV)闭合;

为交流接(jie)触器(qi)KM线圈得(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)提(ti)供(gong)通路(lu),当电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)低(di)于(yu)规(gui)定范国值时(欠压(ya)),1KV或(huo)2KV会因线路(lu)欠压(ya)复归原始状(zhuang)态,使(shi)辅(fu)助电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)中的1KV、2KV触点至少有一个断开,致使(shi)交演接(jie)触器(qi)KM线图(tu)断电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),使(shi)得(de)(de)主电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)的用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动机(ji)M)断电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)停止工作(zuo)。

过流保护和欠压保护.jpg

电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)继(ji)(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)1KA,2KA、3KA都是串接于主电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)的三(san)(san)根相线中,当电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机M通电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)时,三(san)(san)个(ge)(ge)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)继(ji)(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)线圈都有电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)通过,因(yin)为三(san)(san)个(ge)(ge)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)继(ji)(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的整定电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)是电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机额(e)定电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)1.5~2倍,三(san)(san)个(ge)(ge)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)继(ji)(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)通过的电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)都没(mei)有达到电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)继(ji)(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)动(dong)作(zuo)(zuo)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)值,所以三(san)(san)个(ge)(ge)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)继(ji)(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)都不动(dong)作(zuo)(zuo),它们的常闭触点(轴助电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)中的1KA、2KA、3KA)都处于闭合状态,接触器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)KM得电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)正常工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)。

当电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机M在运行过(guo)程中,如果电(dian)(dian)流突然很大(电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机过(guo)载严重),通过(guo)1KA、2KA、3KA线(xian)圈(quan)的电(dian)(dian)流达到(dao)动(dong)(dong)作(zuo)电(dian)(dian)流值时(shi),则(ze)三(san)个电(dian)(dian)流继电(dian)(dian)器会立即(ji)动(dong)(dong)作(zuo),使其常闭(bi)触点(dian)(dian)断(duan)开(kai),则(ze)辅助电(dian)(dian)路交流接(jie)触器KM线(xian)圈(quan)通电(dian)(dian)回路断(duan)开(kai)KM失电(dian)(dian),则(ze)其常开(kai)动(dong)(dong)合触点(dian)(dian)都会断(duan)开(kai),从面使电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机M断(duan)电(dian)(dian),停转。

以上(shang)陈述的(de)内容就(jiu)是(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)和电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)所(suo)起(qi)到(dao)的(de)灾压保(bao)护(hu)和过流保(bao)护(hu)作用,在图(tu)中所(suo)示的(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路中电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)1KV和2KV还起(qi)到(dao)缺(que)相(xiang)保(bao)护(hu)的(de)作用,当(dang)闭合刀开关后,若电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)缺(que)相(xiang)(有一根相(xiang)线对地无电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压或两(liang)根相(xiang)线对地无电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压),则两(liang)个(ge)(ge)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)1KV和2KV至少有一个(ge)(ge)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)不动作,所(suo)以交流接触器(qi)(qi)KM线图(tu)回路是(shi)断开状态。

如果电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)处于正(zheng)常(chang)通电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)工作(zuo)状(zhuang)态时,突然电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)缺相,则1KV或2KV至少会有一(yi)个断(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)立即(ji)返回原始状(zhuang)态,而使辅助电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)断(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),接触器(qi)KM失电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),常(chang)开(kai)(kai)触点(dian)断(duan)开(kai)(kai),使主电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动机M)断(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。由此可见图电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)中的(de)1KV和2KV两个电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压继电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)不(bu)但能(neng)起(qi)到欠压保护作(zuo)用,还能(neng)起(qi)到缺相保护作(zuo)用。


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