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高低压电能的生产和输送分配情况

文章出处:人气:92发表时间:2020-12-30 11:49:40

高低压(ya)(ya)(ya)配电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)柜内(nei)的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)是由(you)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)厂(chang)输送(song)(song)而(er)来。由(you)各种(zhong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)线将发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)厂(chang)、变(bian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)所和电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)用户联系(xi)起来的(de)(de)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、输电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、变(bian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、配电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)和用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)整(zheng)体,叫做电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)系(xi)统。由(you)于电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)输送(song)(song)距离较远电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)能(neng)损耗大,发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)厂(chang)的(de)(de)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机所发(fa)出的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya),经过升压(ya)(ya)(ya)变(bian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)器(qi)升压(ya)(ya)(ya),现(xian)在国内(nei)输电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)技术突飞猛(meng)进,运用特高压(ya)(ya)(ya)和超(chao)高压(ya)(ya)(ya)输送(song)(song)来减少电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)能(neng)损失(shi)。由(you)输电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)线输送(song)(song)至用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)点(dian)的(de)(de)区(qu)域(yu)变(bian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)所,经过区(qu)域(yu)变(bian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)所的(de)(de)降(jiang)压(ya)(ya)(ya)变(bian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)器(qi)降(jiang)压(ya)(ya)(ya)后供(gong)给各用户,

1、发电的几种(zhong)方式(shi)

发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)就(jiu)是电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)的生(sheng)产(chan),生(sheng)产(chan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)的工厂(chang)称发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)厂(chang),发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)厂(chang)是把其他形式的能量转(zhuan)换成(cheng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)能的场(chang)所(suo)(suo)。发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)厂(chang)按(an)所(suo)(suo)用能源不(bu)同,可分为火力(li)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)厂(chang)、水(shui)力(li)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)厂(chang)和(he)原(yuan)子能发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)厂(chang)等,此(ci)外还有太阳能、风(feng)力(li)、潮汐和(he)地(di)热(re)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)等。我国电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)的生(sheng)产(chan)主(zhu)要来(lai)源于火力(li)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)和(he)水(shui)力(li)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。火力(li)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)厂(chang)通常(chang)以煤或油为燃料,使锅(guo)炉产(chan)生(sheng)蒸(zheng)汽,以高压高温蒸(zheng)汽驱(qu)动汽轮机,由汽轮机带动发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机而(er)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。

水(shui)力发电厂是利用(yong)自然水资源作为动(dong)力,通(tong)过(guo)水库或筑坝截流的(de)方(fang)法(fa)提高水位(wei),利用(yong)水流的(de)位(wei)能(neng)(neng)驱(qu)动(dong)水轮(lun)机(ji),由水轮(lun)机(ji)带动(dong)发(fa)电(dian)机(ji)而(er)发(fa)电(dian)。,原子能(neng)(neng)发(fa)电(dian)厂(chang)也称核电(dian)厂(chang),它(ta)由核燃料(liao)在(zai)反(fan)应堆中(zhong)的(de)裂变反(fan)应所(suo)产生的(de)热(re)能(neng)(neng)来产生高压高温蒸汽,驱(qu)动(dong)汽轮(lun)机(ji)而(er)带动(dong)发(fa)电(dian)机(ji)发(fa)电(dian),目前,世界(jie)上由发(fa)电(dian)厂(chang)提供的(de)电(dian)力,绝大多(duo)数(shu)是交(jiao)流电(dian)。

高压电输送

2.电(dian)能的传输(shu)方式

为了安全和节约,通(tong)常都(dou)把大发(fa)(fa)(fa)电(dian)厂建(jian)在远离(li)城(cheng)市(shi)(shi)中心的(de)能(neng)源(yuan)产地附近。如水力发(fa)(fa)(fa)电(dian)厂就是(shi)建(jian)在远离(li)城(cheng)市(shi)(shi)的(de)江河上。因此,发(fa)(fa)(fa)电(dian)厂发(fa)(fa)(fa)出(chu)的(de)电(dian)能(neng)还需要经过一定距离(li)的(de)输(shu)送,才(cai)能(neng)分配给各用户由于(yu)发(fa)(fa)(fa)电(dian)机的(de)绝缘强度和运行(xing)安全等因素,发(fa)(fa)(fa)电(dian)机发(fa)(fa)(fa)出(chu)的(de)电(dian)压(ya)不能(neng)很高(gao),一般(ban)为3.15千(qian)伏(fu)(fu)、6.3千(qian)伏(fu)(fu)、10.5千(qian)伏(fu)(fu)、15.75千(qian)伏(fu)(fu)等。这(zhei)些电(dian)压(ya)都(dou)配电(dian)专用高(gao)压(ya)开(kai)关(guan)柜来(lai)进行(xing)控制。通(tong)常有10kv环网柜

为了减少(shao)电(dian)能在数(shu)十(shi)、数(shu)百公(gong)里输(shu)(shu)电(dian)线(xian)路上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)损失,因此(ci)还必须(xu)经过升(sheng)压(ya)变压(ya)器升(sheng)高(gao)到(dao)35~500千(qian)(qian)(qian)伏(fu)(fu)后(hou)再进行远距(ju)离输(shu)(shu)电(dian)。目前,我国常用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)电(dian)电(dian)压(ya)的(de)(de)(de)等级(ji)有35千(qian)(qian)(qian)伏(fu)(fu)、110千(qian)(qian)(qian)伏(fu)(fu)、220千(qian)(qian)(qian)伏(fu)(fu)、330千(qian)(qian)(qian)伏(fu)(fu)及(ji)500千(qian)(qian)(qian)伏(fu)(fu)等。,输(shu)(shu)电(dian)电(dian)压(ya)的(de)(de)(de)高(gao)低,要(yao)根据输(shu)(shu)电(dian)距(ju)离和输(shu)(shu)电(dian)容量(liang)而定,其(qi)原则是(shi),容量(liang)越(yue)大,距(ju)离越(yue)远,输(shu)(shu)电(dian)电(dian)压(ya)就(jiu)越(yue)高(gao)高(gao)压(ya)输(shu)(shu)电(dian)到(dao)用(yong)户区(qu)后(hou),再经降压(ya)变压(ya)器将高(gao)电(dian)压(ya)降低到(dao)用(yong)户所需要(yao)的(de)(de)(de)各种电(dian)压(ya)。

高压电传输方式

3.工厂(chang)中的(de)变、配电方式

变(bian)(bian)(bian)电(dian)即(ji)变(bian)(bian)(bian)换电(dian)网电(dian)压(ya)(ya)的(de)(de)等级,配(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)电(dian)即(ji)电(dian)力的(de)(de)分配(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei),变(bian)(bian)(bian)电(dian)分输(shu)电(dian)电(dian)压(ya)(ya)的(de)(de)变(bian)(bian)(bian)换和(he)配(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)电(dian)电(dian)压(ya)(ya)的(de)(de)变(bian)(bian)(bian)换。完成前者任务(wu)的(de)(de)称或变(bian)(bian)(bian)电(dian)所,完成后者任务(wu)的(de)(de)称变(bian)(bian)(bian)配(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)电(dian)站或变(bian)(bian)(bian)配(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)电(dian)所。如果只具备配(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)电(dian)功能而(er)无变(bian)(bian)(bian)电(dian)设备的(de)(de)称为配(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)电(dian)站或配(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)电(dian)所。一般安装有10kv干式变(bian)(bian)(bian)压(ya)(ya)器。大(da)、中型(xing)工厂都有自己(ji)的(de)(de)变(bian)(bian)(bian)、配(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)电(dian)站,通常由高(gao)压(ya)(ya)配(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)电(dian)室、变(bian)(bian)(bian)压(ya)(ya)器室和(he)低压(ya)(ya)配(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)(pei)电(dian)室组成。

用电量在1000千瓦以下的工(gong)厂(chang),由于采(cai)用低电压(在电力(li)系统(tong)中1千伏(fu)(fu)以上为高(gao)电压,1千伏(fu)(fu)以下为低电压)供电,只需(xu)要一个低压配(pei)电室就够了。

变电站降压变压器

电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)能输送到工(gong)厂后,经高压配电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)室(shi)配电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)后,由变(bian)压器(qi)室(shi)的降压变(bian)压器(qi)将6~35千伏的电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压降至380伏/220伏的低(di)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压,安装有防(fang)爆高压开关柜再经过(guo)低(di)压配电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)装置,对(dui)各车间(jian)用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)设备进行配电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)在车间(jian)配电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)中,对(dui)动力用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)和照(zhao)明用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)采用分别配电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的方式(shi),即把各个动力配电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)线路以及照(zhao)明配电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)线路一一分开,这样可(ke)避免因局(ju)部事故而影响整个车间(jian)的生产。

以上就(jiu)是对整(zheng)(zheng)个电(dian)(dian)能的(de)产生(sheng)、传输(shu)和再分配进行了完整(zheng)(zheng)的(de)分析。生(sheng)活中用(yong)电(dian)(dian)来之(zhi)不易(yi),因(yin)此要节约用(yong)电(dian)(dian)保(bao)证(zheng)用(yong)电(dian)(dian)设备的(de)安全。电(dian)(dian)工(gong)操(cao)作人员应严格遵守配电(dian)(dian)房管理(li)制度(du)维(wei)护(hu)好用(yong)电(dian)(dian)设备。


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